Wireless communication technologies are rapidly advancing and taking up more space in our daily lives. Smartphones, tablets, computers, smart home devices, and many other devices communicate with each other through wireless connection technologies. Antenna selection guide helps us with this.
One of the most fundamental components of these technologies is antennas. Antennas are one of the most important components of wireless communication systems. Antennas transmit electrical signals into electromagnetic waves or convert electromagnetic waves into electrical signals to facilitate communication.
Antenna selection is a factor that directly affects system performance, power consumption, cost, and efficiency. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to certain criteria when selecting antennas.
Now, we will discuss what to consider when selecting antennas and provide some tips.
Antenna Selection Guide; What should we consider when determining the location for antenna installation?
The choice of installation location is important for the proper operation of wireless communication. Correct placement of the antenna allows for optimal reception and transmission of signals.
The location of the antenna is important when choosing the location for the antenna connection. The antenna must be in direct line of sight with the desired device for communication. In addition, it’s recommended that the surrounding area of the antenna mounting location be open and positioned as far away as possible from points such as GSM base stations, power lines, and radio transmitters.
What should we consider when determining antenna gain?
In this paragraph, Antenna gain is the ability of an antenna to increase signal strength. Moreover, when determining antenna gain, factors such as the distance between the devices to be connected, obstacles in between, height differences, distance between the device and the antenna and Effective Radiated Power (ERP) should be taken into account.
In situations where there are obstacles or height differences, low-gain antennas can be preferred. High-gain antennas can be preferred for long-distance communication without obstacles on the same plane. If you are using wireless internet in an apartment, using a high-gain antenna may not be necessary due to obstacles like walls, for instance. But, high-gain antennas are best for long distance communication in open areas. Therefore, when determining antenna gain, you should consider your specific usage scenario.
Low-gain antennas are more effective in terms of global broadcasting. As antenna gain increases, the vertical viewing angle of the antennas begins to narrow. You can refer to the image below for a more understandable explanation of this topic.
What should we consider when selecting an antenna cable?
Antenna cable selection should consider distance,the ERP limitation, and the quality of the cable. The Antenna cable is used to transfer the signal to the device without loss.
As the length of the antenna cable increases, the signal loss also increases. Therefore, It is important to keep the antenna cable short for optimal RF performance. Additionally, the quality of the antenna cable is important. Cable types are classified according to their loss rates per meter. Different cable types, such as RG58, LMR240, and LMR400, have different loss rates. Factors such as the distance between the antenna and the device and the ERP limitation should be considered when determining the antenna cable. The attenuation of cables such as LMR240, LMR400, RG58, RG174, etc. can vary per meter, depending on cable quality.
|Cable Type||Loss Per Meter (Average)|
Choose a cable of appropriate quality to minimize signal loss. Additionally, the connection points of the antenna cable should be of high quality. Problems that may arise at cable connection points can lead to signal loss.
What tools are required for antenna installation?
Having the right tools is essential for proper antenna installation and alignment. When mounting an antenna, the most important tools are ladders and suitable screws and clamps to secure it. Additionally, tools such as a drill, screwdriver, hammer, and pipe wrench may be necessary. Depending on where the antenna is being mounted, a hoisting cable or crane may also be required. Specialized tools such as a radiation pattern measurement device may also be used for proper antenna alignment. While these are some of the basic tools needed for antenna installation, it’s important to refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the correct use of tools as each installation may be different.
What are the Common Mistakes in Antenna Selection and How to Avoid Them?
The selection of an antenna is crucial for the proper functioning of wireless communication systems. Moreover, common mistakes made in antenna selection can cause system performance failures. It is important to learn to avoid common mistakes when choosing an antenna.
Many people select antennas based on antenna gain alone. However, antenna gain is just one factor, and other factors such as antenna polarization, operating frequency, vertical beamwidth, and environmental factors must also be considered. Focusing solely on gain during antenna selection can lead to faulty decision-making.
Another common mistake is making errors during antenna installation. Improper placement of the antenna can negatively impact its performance. Therefore, hoosing the wrong cable or incorrectly connecting the cable can cause problems with RF signal transmission. Preventing these type of mistakes during antenna selection can improve wireless communication performance.
Antenna Selection for Wireless Communication: Which Type of Antenna is Suitable for Which Needs?
Wireless communication technologies require different types of antennas for various needs. For instance, antennas used to establish a Wi-Fi network must be directed to cover a specific distance range. Therefore, Choose an antenna that is suitable for your connection type and distance needs. While smaller antennas are preferred for indoor use. Larger antennas are preferred for outdoor use. In some cases, directional antennas may be more suitable for long distances, while in other cases, wide-angle antennas may be preferred. Therefore, Identifying needs and understanding factors in antenna selection is essential for successful antenna selection.
Vertical Beamwidth of Antennas: Why is it Important for Communication and How Does it Affect?
The vertical beamwidth of antennas can affect the effectiveness of communication in an environment. Vertical beamwidth indicates the angle at which the antenna radiates its signal. It is directly related to the location and height of the receiving antenna during communication.
For example, if the vertical beamwidth of an antenna used for a wireless network isn’t properly adjusted, it may cause the signal to be directed only to the ground or sky. In this case, communication power decreases significantly and signal strength loss may occur. On the other hand, when the vertical beamwidth is properly adjusted, the antenna can transmit signals to a wider area, making communication more efficient.
Vertical beamwidth is also related to the height of antennas. Antenna height increases vertical beamwidth, providing more communication power. But attention should be paid to antenna installation and safetyin that case.
In conclusion, the vertical beamwidth is an important factor to consider in antenna selection. Its proper adjustment plays a critical role in communication power and efficiency.